1. **Basic
Geometry/Euclidean Geometry/Coordinate Geometry/ [3-D variants of everything].**

2. **Computational
Geometry.**

a. Graham Scan algorithm for Convex Hull
O(n * log(n)).

b. Online construction of 3-D convex hull
in O(n^2).

c. Bentley Ottmann algorithm to list all
intersection points of n line segments in O((n + I) * logn).

■ Suggested Reading -

d. Rotating Calipers Technique.

■ Problems - Refer the article for a list
of problems which can be solved using Rotating Calipers technique.

e. Line Sweep/Plane Sweep algorithms -

■ Area/Perimeter of Union of Rectangles.

■ Closest pair of points.

■ Suggested Reading -

■ Problems - Follow the tutorial for list
of problems.

f. Area of Union of Circles.

g. Delayunay Triangulation of n points in
O(n * logn).

h. Voronoi Diagrams of n points in O(n *
logn) using Fortunes algorithm.

i. Point in a polygon problem -

■ O(n) solution without preprocessing.

■ O(logn) algorithm with O(n * logn)
preprocessing for convex polygons.

j. Problems on computational geometry -

■ BSHEEP, BULK, SEGVIS, CONDUIT, RUNAWAY, DIRVS, RAIN1, SHAMAN, TCUTTER, LITEPIPE, RHOMBS, FSHEEP, FLBRKLIN, CERC07P, BAC, ALTARS, CERC07C, NECKLACE, CH3D, RECTANGL, POLYSSQ, FOREST2, KPPOLY, RAIN2, SEGMENTS, ARCHPLG, BALLOON, CIRCLES, COMPASS, EOWAMRT, ICERINK on SPOJ.
k. Suggested Reading -

■ Computational Geometry: Algorithms and
applications. Mark De Burg.

3. **String
Algorithm**.

a. KnuthMorrisPratt algorithm.

■ Problems - NHAY, PERIOD on SPOJ.

■ Suggested Reading -

1. Cormen chapter on Strings.

b. Aho Corasick algorithm.

■ Problems - WPUZZLES on SPOJ.

c. Suffix Arrays

■ O(n^2 * logn) Naive method of suffix array
construction

■ O(n * logn^2) method of suffix array
construction

■ O(n * logn) method of suffix array
construction.

■ O(n) method of suffix array construction

■ O(n) LCA preprocess on Suffix Arrays to
solve a variety of string problems.

d. Suffix Trees

■ O(n) construction of Suffix trees using
Ukkenon’s algorithm.

■ O(n) construction of Suffix Trees if
provided with Suffix Arrays using Farach’s algorithm.

e. Suffix Automata

■ O(n) Suffix Automaton construction.

f. Dictionary Of Basic Factors

■ O(n * logn) method of DBF construction
using Radix Sort.

g. Manachar’s algorithm to find Lengh of
palindromic substring of a string centered at a position for each position in
the string. Runtime -> O(n).

h. Searching and preprocessing Regular
Expressions consisting of ‘?’, ‘*’.

i. Multi-dimensional pattern matching.

j. Problems on Strings [can be solved with
a variety of techniques] -

■ DISUBSTR, PLD, MSTRING, REPEATS, JEWELS, ARCHIVER, PROPKEY, LITELANG, EMOTICON, WORDS, AMCODES, UCODES, PT07H, MINSEQ, TOPALIN, BWHEELER, BEADS, SARRAY, LCS, LCS2, SUBST1, PHRASES, PRETILE on SPOJ
4. **Basic
Graphs [beginner]**.

a. Representation of graphs as adjacency
list, adjacency matrix, incidence matrix and edge list and uses of different
representations in different scenarios.

b. Breadth First Search.

■ problems -

c. Depth First Search.

d. Strongly Connected Components.

■ problems -

e. Biconnected Components, Finding
articulation points and bridges].

■ problems -

f. Dijkstra algorithm -

■ problems -

g. Floyd Warshall algorithm -

■ problems -

h. Minimum Spanning Tree

■ problems -

i. Flood-fill algorithm

j. Topological sort

k. Bellman-Ford algorithm.

l. Euler Tour/Path.

m. Suggested reading for most of the topics
in Graph algorithms -

■ Also refer to the tutorial for problems
concerning these techniques.

■ Cormen chapter 22 to 24.

5. **Flow
networks/ matching etc etc. [Interdiate/Advanced].**

a. Maximum flow using Ford Fulkerson
Method.

■ Suggested Reading -

■ problems - TAXI, POTHOLE, IM, QUEST4, MUDDY, EN, CABLETV, STEAD, NETADMIN, COCONUTS, OPTM on SPOJ.
b. Maximum flow using Dinics Algorithm.

c. Minimum Cost Maximum Flow.

■ Successive Shortest path algorithm.

■ Cycle Cancelling algorithm.

■ Suggested Reading -

d. Maximum weighted Bipartite Matching
(Kuhn Munkras algorithm/Hungarian Method)

e. Stoer Wagner min-cut algorithm.

f. Hopcroft Karp bipartite matching
algorithm.

g. Maximum matching in general graph
(blossom shrinking)

h. Gomory-Hu Trees.

i. Chinese Postman Problem.

j. Suggested Reading for the full category
->

■ Network flow - Algorithms and
Applications by Ahuja

■ Cormen book chapter 25.

6. **Dynamic
Programming.**

a. Suggested Reading - Dynamic
Programming(DP) as a tabulation method

■ Cormen chapter on DP

b. Standard problems (you should really
feel comfortable with these types)

c. State space reduction

d. Solving in the reverse - easier
characterizations looking from the end

e. Counting/optimizing arrangements
satisfying some specified properties

f. Strategies and expected values

g. DP on probability spaces

h. DP on trees

i. DP with datastructures

j. Symmetric characterization of DP state

k. A good collection of problems

7. **Greedy.**

a. Suggested Reading -

■ Chapter on Greedy algorithms in Cormen.

■ http://www.topcoder.com/tc?module=Static&d1=tutorials&d2=greedyAlg

b. problems - refer to the topcoder
tutorial.

8. **Number
Theory.**

a. Modulus arithmetic - basic postulates
[Including modular linear equations ,
Continued fraction and Pell's equation]

■ Suggested Reading -

1. Chapter 1 from Number Theory for
Computing by SY Yan [ Recommended ]

2. 31.1, 31.3 and 31.4 from Cormen

■ Problems

b. Fermat's theorem, Euler Totient theorem
( totient function, order , primitive roots )

■ Suggested Reading

1. 1.6, 2.2 from Number Theory by SY Yan

2. 31.6 , 31.7 from Cormen

■ Problems

c. Chinese remainder theorem

■ Suggested Reading

1. 31.5 from Cormen

2. 1.6 from Number Theory by SY Yan

■ Problems

1. Project Euler 271

d. Primality tests -

■ Deterministic O(sqrt(n) ) approach

■ Probabilistic primality tests - Fermat
primality test, Miller-Rabin Primality test

1. Suggested Reading -

b. Cormen 31.8

c. 2.2 from Number Theory by SY Yan

2. Problems -

a. PON, PRIC, SOLSTRAS on SPOJ

e. Prime generation techniques - Sieve of
Erastothenes

■ Suggested Problems - PRIME1 on SPOJ

f. GCD using euclidean method

■ Suggested Reading

1. 31.2 Cormen

■ Problems -

1. GCD on SPOJ

g. Logarithmic Exponentiation

■ Suggested Reading -

h. Integer Factorization

■ Naive O(sqrt(n)) method

■ Pollard Rho factorization

■ Suggested Reading

1. 2.3 from Number Theory SY Yan

2. 31.9 Cormen

■ Problems -

i. Stirling numbers

j. Wilson theorem

■ nCr % p
in O(p) preprocess and O(log n ) query

k. Lucas Theorem

l. Suggested Reading for Number Theory -

■ Number theory for computing by Song Y
Yan [ Simple book describing concepts in
details ]

■ Concepts are also superficially covered
in Chapter 31 of Introduction to Algorithms by Cormen

m. Problems on Number Theory -

9. **Math
(Probability, Counting, Game Theory, Group Theory, Generating functions,
Permutation Cycles, Linear Algebra)**

a. **Probability.**

__Syllabus__

■ Basic probability and Conditional
probability

1. Suggested problems

■ Random variables, probability generating
functions

■ Mathematical expectation + Linearity of
expectation

1. Suggested problems

■ Special discrete and
continuous probability distributions

1. Bernoulli, Binomial,
Poisson, normal distribution

2. Suggested Problem

■ Suggested Readings

1. Cormen appendix C (very
basic)

5. William Feller, An
introduction to probability theory and its applications

b. **Counting**

__Syllabus__

■ Basic principles - Pigeon hole
principle, addition, multiplication rules

1. Suggested problems

a. __http://acm.timus.ru/problem.aspx?space=1&num=1690
__

b. __http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=10805__

3. Suggested readings

a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combinatorial_principles

b. http://www.topcoder.com/tc?module=Static&d1=tutorials&d2=combinatorics

c. http://www.maa.org/editorial/knot/pigeonhole.html

■ Inclusion-exclusion

1. Suggested readings

a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclusion–exclusion_principle

2. Suggested problems

a. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=4463&rd=6536

b. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=10238

■ Special numbers

1. Suggested reading -
Stirling, eurlerian, harmonic, bernoulli, fibonnacci numbers

a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_number

b. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eulerian_numbers

c. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonic_series_(mathematics)

d. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli_number

e. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonnaci_numbers

f. Concrete mathematics by
Knuth

2. Suggested problems

a. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=1643

b. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=8202&rd=11125

c. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=8725

d. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=2292&rd=10709

■ Advanced counting
techniques - Polya counting, burnsides lemma

1. Suggested reading

a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burnside's_lemma

b. http://petr-mitrichev.blogspot.com/2008/11/burnsides-lemma.html

2. Suggested Problems

a. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=9975

b. http://www.spoj.pl/problems/TRANSP/

c. Game theory

__Syllabus __

■ Basic principles and Nim
game

1. Sprague grundy theorem,
grundy numbers

2. Suggested readings

a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sprague%E2%80%93Grundy_theorem

b. http://www.topcoder.com/tc?module=Static&d1=tutorials&d2=algorithmGames

c. http://www.ams.org/samplings/feature-column/fcarc-games1

d. http://www.codechef.com/wiki/tutorial-game-theory

3. Suggested problems

a. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=3491&rd=6517

b. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=3491&rd=6517

■ Hackenbush

1. Suggested readings

a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hackenbush

b. http://www.ams.org/samplings/feature-column/fcarc-partizan1

2. Suggested problems

a. http://www.cs.caltech.edu/ipsc/problems/g.html

b. http://www.spoj.pl/problems/PT07A/

** d. Linear Algebra**

** **__Syllabus __

■ Matrix Operations

1. Addition and subtraction
of matrices

a. Suggested Reading

i. Cormen 28.1

2. Multiplication (
Strassen's algorithm ), logarithmic exponentiation

a. Suggested reading

i. Cormen 28.2

ii. Linear Algebra by Kenneth
Hoffman Section 1.6

b. Problems

i. http://uva.onlinejudge.org/external/111/11149.html

3. Matrix transformations [
Transpose, Rotation of Matrix, Representing Linear transformations using matrix
]

a. Suggested Reading

i. Linear Algebra By Kenneth
Hoffman Section 3.1,3.2,3.4,3.7

b. Problems

i. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=6877

ii. JPIX on Spoj

4. Determinant , Rank and
Inverse of Matrix [ Gaussean Elimination , Gauss Jordan Elimination]

a. Suggested Reading

i. 28.4 Cormen

ii. Linear Algebra by Kenneth
Chapter 1

b. Problems

i. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=8174

ii. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=6407&rd=9986

iii.
http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=8587

iv. HIGH on Spoj

5. Solving system of linear
equations

a. Suggested Reading

i. 28.3 Cormen

ii. Linear Algebra by Kenneth
Chapter 1

b. Problems -

i. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=3942&rd=6520

6. Using matrix
exponentiation to solve recurrences

a. Suggested Reading

b. Problems

i. REC, RABBIT1 , PLHOP on
spoj

ii. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=6386
, http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=7262,
http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=6877

7. Eigen values and Eigen
vectors

a. Problems

i. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=2423&rd=4780

■ Polynomials

1. Roots of a polynomial
[ Prime factorization of a polynomial,
Integer roots of a polynomial, All real roots of a polynomial ]

a. Problems

i. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=8273&rd=10798

ii. POLYEQ , ROOTCIPH on Spoj

2. Lagrange Interpolation

a. Problems

i. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=10239

ii. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=8725

e. Permutation cycles

■ Suggested Reading

1. Art of Computer
Programming by Knuth Vol. 3

■ Problems

1. ShuffleMethod, Permutation
and WordGame on topcoder.

f. Group Theory

■ Bernside Lemma, Polias
theorem

1. Suggested Reading

a. Hernstein's topics in algebra

2. Problems

a. TRANSP on spoj

b. http://www.topcoder.com/stat?c=problem_statement&pm=9975

b. Generating functions

■ Suggested Reading

1. Herbert Wilf's generating
functionology

2. Robert Sedgewick and
Flajoulet's Combinatorial analysis

10. **Data
Structures.**

**i. ****Basic**

**a. **Arrays/Stacks/Queues :

■ Problems

■ Reading:

**1. **CLRS: section 10.1

b. Singly/Doubly Linked List :

■ Problems

**1. **h__ttps://www.spoj.pl/problems/POSTERS/__

■ Reading: CLRS: section 10.2, Mark Allen
Weies Chapter 3

c. Hash Tables :

■ Problems

■ Reading: CLRS: Chapter 11, Mark Allen
Weies Chapter 5

d. Circular linked list / queue

■ Problems

e. Binary/nary Trees

■ Reading

**1. **CLRS: section 10.4

**2. **CLRS: Chapter 12

**3. **Mark Allen Weies Chapter 4

f. Heaps

■ Problems

■ Reading : Mark Allen Weies Chapter 6

** ii. Advanced**

**a. **Trie (Keyword tree)

■ Problems

■ Reading

**b. **Interval trees / Segment Trees

■ Problems

■ Reading

**c. **Fenwick(Binary Indexed) trees

■ Problems

**d. **Disjoint data structures

■ Problems

■ Reading:

**2. **Mark Allen Weies Chapter 8

**e. **Range minimum Query(RMQ)

■ Problems

**f. **Customized interval/segment trees
(Augmented DS)

■ Problems

■ Reading: CLRS: Chapter 14 (augmented DS)

g. AVL Trees

■ Problems

■ Reading

** iii. Miscellaneous (Not to be covered) **

**a. **Splay Trees

**b. **B/B+ Trees

**c. **k-d Trees

**d. **Red-black Trees

**e. **Skip List

**f. **Binomial/ Fibonacci heaps

** iv. Exercices**

11. **Search
Techniques/Bruteforce writing techniques/Randomized algorithms.**

a. Backtracking - [Beginner].

■ problems ->

1. N queens problems

2. Knights Tour

3. Sudoku Problem

4. Tiling Problem.

5. 15 puzzle.

b. Dancing Links and Algorithm X given by
Knuth - [Advanced]

■ problems - PRLGAME, SUDOKU, NQUEEN on
SPOJ

■ Suggested reading -

c. Binary Search - [Beginner].

■ poblems - AGGRCOW on SPOJ. Refer the
tutorial for more problems.

■ finding all real roots of a polynomial
using binary search. [intermediate].

■ Suggested Reading -

d. Ternary Search - [Intermediate].

■ problems -

e. Meet in the middle [Intermediate].

■ problems -

f. Hill Climbing [Advanced].

g. Regular Iteration to reach a fixed point
[Advanced].

■ Newton-Raphson method to find root of a
mathematical function.

■ Iterations to solve linear
non-homogeneous system of equations.

h. Randomized Algorithms [Intermediate]-

■ Quick-Sort.

12. **General
programming issues in contests** ->

a. Arithmetic Precision - [Beginner].

■ Suggested Reading -

b. Representing sets with bitmasks and
manipulating bitmasks - [Beginner].

■ Suggested Reading -

■ problems - refer to the tutorial link in
Suggested reading section.